The Mystery of Redundant Nerve Roots of Cauda Equina Has Finally Been Solved!

Dr.Vrcakovski finally decoded the mysterious phenomenon of extended, elongated and serpiginous spinal nerve roots, called Redundant Nerve Roots (RNRs) of Cauda Equina( Fig.1)

This condition is closely connected with high grade stenosis of the spinal canal. To date there has been no convincing and logical explanation for this mysterious phenomenon.

The available literature only gives short remarks that RNRs is probably the pathological result of a chronic compressive force at the level of spinal stenosis.

Fig. 1

Dr. Miodrag Vrcakovski is a professor of Radiology and Neuroradiology in the Medical faculty Skopje, North Macedonia and is employed in Neuromedica Hospital, Skopje.

Herniated discs can also be the cause for such condition, but only in prolonged high grade discs herniations. (Fig.2)

In the available publications regarding this subject no real explanations of RNRs exist. In fact, in the literature there is limited info on this. It is mostly believed that RNRs is probably the pathological result of a chronic compressive force at the level of spinal stenosis.

During the spinal flexion, the roots of cauda equina below the level of narrowing are stretched and pulled upwards, but due to the narrow opening of the stenosis they remain trapped above the level of stenosis during recovery phase.

Fig. 2

Dr. Miodrag Vrcakovski was not satisfied with this explanation and started his own five years long research to find the answer.

In this publication he will present proof that the occurrence of RNRs in all its variants is the result of local hydrodynamic disturbances of the CSF flow at the site of stenosis based on the fundamental laws of hydrodynamics.

The reliability of this theory was experimentally proven on a special hydrodynamic model constructed by him.

You will find answers to some very provocative questions about RNRs, such as:

  1. Redundant nerve roots distal from stenosis! (Fig.3)
  2. Redundant Nerve Roots both above and below the level of spinal stenosis! (Fig.4)
  3. Eccentric selective formation of RNRs! (Fig.5)
  4. Phenomenon of “UP AND DOWN AND DOWN AND UP” RNRS! (“Walking RNRs”!) (Fig.6).
    You will find out when and how it happens?
  5. Is RNRs a reversible process? (Fig.7)….Why YES and why NO!






The complete answer to all your questions connected with RNRs of cauda equina is finally here. To discover the truth about this phenomenon get the whole presentation.

This project is dedicated to:
All Students of Medicine, Medical Doctors, Doctors specializing in the field of Radiology, Neurology, Neurosurgery and Orthopedic surgery, Radiologists, Neuroradiologists, Neurologists, Neurosurgeons, Orthopedic surgeons, Chiropractors, Specialists in the field of Physical medicine and Rehabilitation and many others.